Rails布署最佳实践

介绍 Rails 项目在 Ubuntu 下使用 nginx + puma + mina 布署方案

Posted by Rina on 2017-12-25

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1. 准备工作

  • 购买域名:http://name.com/
  • 购买一台云服务器, 提供商: 阿里云,AWS
  • 域名绑定IP为服务器IP地址

本文介绍的内容为:服务器 ubuntu16.04, Rails项目,mina 发布

2. 安装rails环境

  • 使用 root 账号登录服务器,创建一个没有root权限的账号。
$ adduser newuser

设置新用户密码

2.1 配置 ssh

在本地生成 SSH KEY (如果已经有了,可以忽略这步。)

  • 打开终端

  • 用你自己的邮箱地址替换下面的命令,并执行

$ ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096 -C "your_email@example.com"
  • 执行这条命令时,系统会提示你输入要保存密钥的文件位置及安全passphrase,请按Enter键就行了。

生成完之后,在 ~/.ssh/ 目录下会添加两个文件,默认情况下一个私钥 id_rsa, 一个公钥 id_rsa.pub

2.2 配置无密码登录服务器

这一步是为了给mina发布提供方便,因为mina发布需要无密登录服务器,执行发布命令。

  • 将公钥 id_rsa.pub 文件上传到服务器上, 并添加到 authorized_keys
$ scp ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub root@your.domain.com:~/.ssh/

$ ssh root@your.domain.com

$ cd ~/.ssh/

$ cat id_rsa.pub >> authorized_keys

$ rm id_rsa.pub
  • 重新开一个终端, 登录服务器,如果无需输入密码登录成功,那上面的配置就成功了。
$ ssh root@your.domain.com

以上是配置 root 用户无密码登录, 同样给 newuser 用户配置成无密码登录。 

  • 登录 root 账号,将服务器上的 ssh 配置关掉密码登录
$ vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config

更新:

PasswordAuthentication no

2.3 安装 Node.js 和 Yarn 的系统依赖

为了确保能顺利安装Rails,先要安装 Node.js 和 Yarn 的系统依赖

以下操作使用 root 账号执行

$ curl -sL https://deb.nodesource.com/setup_8.x | sudo -E bash -
$ curl -sS https://dl.yarnpkg.com/debian/pubkey.gpg | sudo apt-key add -
$ echo "deb https://dl.yarnpkg.com/debian/ stable main" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/yarn.list

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install git-core curl zlib1g-dev build-essential libssl-dev libreadline-dev libyaml-dev libsqlite3-dev sqlite3 libxml2-dev libxslt1-dev libcurl4-openssl-dev python-software-properties libffi-dev nodejs yarn

2.4 安装 rbenv

以下操作使用 newuser 账号执行

$ cd
$ git clone https://github.com/rbenv/rbenv.git ~/.rbenv
$ echo 'export PATH="$HOME/.rbenv/bin:$PATH"' >> ~/.bashrc
$ echo 'eval "$(rbenv init -)"' >> ~/.bashrc
$ exec $SHELL

$ git clone https://github.com/rbenv/ruby-build.git ~/.rbenv/plugins/ruby-build
$ echo 'export PATH="$HOME/.rbenv/plugins/ruby-build/bin:$PATH"' >> ~/.bashrc
$ exec $SHELL

$ rbenv install 2.4.3
$ rbenv global 2.4.3
$ ruby -v
$ gem install bundler
$ rbenv rehash

2.5 配置git账号

以下操作使用 newuser 账号执行

  • 用你的github账号信息,替换下面的用户名和邮箱,并执行
$ git config --global color.ui true
$ git config --global user.name "YOUR NAME"
$ git config --global user.email "YOUR@EMAIL.com"
$ ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096 -C "YOUR@EMAIL.com"

在服务器上生成了ssh key后, 将下面命令输出的内容,复制后粘贴到你github账号SSH and GPG keys下:https://github.com/settings/keys

$ cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
  • 测试github配置是否成功
$ ssh -T git@github.com

如果成功会输出以下信息:

Hi xxxx! You've successfully authenticated, but GitHub does not provide shell access.

2.6 安装 Rails

  • 使用 newuser 账号执行以下命令
$ gem install rails -v 5.1.4

$ rbenv rehash

$ rails -v
# Rails 5.1.4

2.7 安装 MySQL

  • 使用 root 账号执行以下命令
$ sudo apt-get install mysql-server mysql-client libmysqlclient-dev

2.8 安装 PostgreSQL

  • 使用 root 账号执行以下命令
$ sudo sh -c "echo 'deb http://apt.postgresql.org/pub/repos/apt/ xenial-pgdg main' > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/pgdg.list"
$ wget --quiet -O - http://apt.postgresql.org/pub/repos/apt/ACCC4CF8.asc | sudo apt-key add -
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install postgresql-common
$ sudo apt-get install postgresql-9.5 libpq-dev

postgres安装不会为你设置一个用户,所以你需要按照以下步骤创建一个有权创建数据库的用户。 随意用你的用户名替换 chris

$ sudo -u postgres createuser chris -s

# If you would like to set a password for the user, you can do the following
$ sudo -u postgres psql
$ postgres=# \password chris

3. 配置nginx

  • 使用 root 账号登录服务器

  • 将 home/newuser/xxxxxx 的目录改成你发布项目的目录,将 example.com 改成你的域名。

upstream RBlog {
  server unix:///home/newuser/xxx/shared/tmp/sockets/puma.sock fail_timeout=0; 
}

server {
  listen 80;
  server_name example.com;
  root /home/newuser/xxx/current/public;

  location ^~ /assets/ {
    gzip_static on;
    expires max;
    add_header Cache-Control public;
  }

  location /cable {
    proxy_http_version 1.1;
    proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
    proxy_set_header Connection "Upgrade";
    proxy_set_header Host $host;
    proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
    proxy_pass http://xxx;
  }

  location ~ ^/(uploads)/  {
    expires max;
    break;
  }


  try_files $uri/index.html $uri @RBlog;
  location @xxx {
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
    proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
    proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
    proxy_redirect off;
    proxy_pass http://xxx;
  }

  error_page 500 502 503 504 /500.html;
  client_max_body_size 20M;
  keepalive_timeout 10;
}
  • 将以上更换后的配置信息,保存到 /etc/nginx/conf.d/ 目录下,命令为 xxx.conf xxx 用你想要的命名替换。

  • 测试配置信息是否OK

$ nginx -t
# nginx: the configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf syntax is ok
# nginx: configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf test is successful
  • 重新加载 nginx
$ nginx -s reload

4. 发布Rails项目

如果你是用这个 模板 创建的Rails项目, 以下配置信息都已经添加了,只需要更新目录信息就行。

如果没有需要在Gemfile里添加这些gem包。

gem 'mina', '~>0.3.8', require: false
gem 'mina-puma', '~>0.3.2', require: false
gem 'mina-multistage', '~> 1.0', '>= 1.0.2', require: false
gem 'mina-sidekiq', '~> 0.3.1', require: false
gem 'mina-logs', '>= 0.1.0', require: false
gem 'whenever', :require => false

4.1 配置 puma

在你的Rails项目下配置 puma,config/puma.rb, 替换 /home/newuser/xxx 目录.

if ENV['RAILS_ENV'] == 'production'
  app_root = "/home/newuser/xxx/shared"
  pidfile "#{app_root}/tmp/pids/puma.pid"
  state_path "#{app_root}/tmp/pids/puma.state"
  bind "unix://#{app_root}/tmp/sockets/puma.sock"
  activate_control_app "unix://#{app_root}/tmp/sockets/pumactl.sock"
  daemonize true
  workers 4
  threads 8, 16
  preload_app!

  on_worker_boot do
    ActiveSupport.on_load(:active_record) do
      ActiveRecord::Base.establish_connection
    end
  end

  before_fork do
    ActiveRecord::Base.connection_pool.disconnect!
  end
else
  plugin :tmp_restart
end

4.2 配置config/deploy.rb

set :stages, %w(production)
set :default_stage, 'production'

require 'mina/multistage'
require 'mina/bundler'
require 'mina/rails'
require 'mina/git'
require 'mina/rbenv'
require 'mina/puma'
require "mina_sidekiq/tasks"
require 'mina/logs'
require 'mina/whenever'

set :shared_paths, ['config/database.yml', 'config/newrelic.yml', 'config/application.yml', 'log', 'public/uploads']

task :environment do
  invoke :'rbenv:load'
end

task :setup => :environment do
  queue! %[mkdir -p "#{deploy_to}/shared/tmp/sockets"]
  queue! %[chmod g+rx,u+rwx "#{deploy_to}/shared/tmp/sockets"]

  queue! %[mkdir -p "#{deploy_to}/shared/pids"]
  queue! %[chmod g+rx,u+rwx "#{deploy_to}/shared/pids"]

  queue! %[mkdir -p "#{deploy_to}/shared/tmp/pids"]
  queue! %[chmod g+rx,u+rwx "#{deploy_to}/shared/tmp/pids"]

  queue! %[mkdir -p "#{deploy_to}/#{shared_path}/log"]
  queue! %[chmod g+rx,u+rwx "#{deploy_to}/#{shared_path}/log"]

  queue! %[mkdir -p "#{deploy_to}/#{shared_path}/public/uploads"]
  queue! %[chmod g+rx,u+rwx "#{deploy_to}/#{shared_path}/public/uploads"]

  queue! %[mkdir -p "#{deploy_to}/#{shared_path}/config"]
  queue! %[chmod g+rx,u+rwx "#{deploy_to}/#{shared_path}/config"]

  queue! %[touch "#{deploy_to}/#{shared_path}/config/application.yml"]
  queue  %[echo "-----> Be sure to edit '#{deploy_to}/#{shared_path}/config/application.yml'"]

  queue! %[touch "#{deploy_to}/#{shared_path}/config/database.yml"]
  queue  %[echo "-----> Be sure to edit '#{deploy_to}/#{shared_path}/config/database.yml'"]
end

desc "Deploys the current version to the server."
task :deploy => :environment do
  queue  %[echo "-----> Server: #{domain}"]
  queue  %[echo "-----> Path: #{deploy_to}"]
  queue  %[echo "-----> Branch: #{branch}"]

  deploy do
    invoke :'sidekiq:quiet'
    invoke :'git:clone'
    invoke :'deploy:link_shared_paths'
    invoke :'bundle:install'
    invoke :'rails:db_migrate'
    invoke :'rails:assets_precompile'
    invoke :'deploy:cleanup'

    to :launch do
      invoke :'puma:hard_restart'
      invoke :'sidekiq:restart'
      invoke :'whenever:update'
    end
  end
end

desc "Deploys the current version to the server."
task :first_deploy => :environment do
  queue  %[echo "-----> Server: #{domain}"]
  queue  %[echo "-----> Path: #{deploy_to}"]
  queue  %[echo "-----> Branch: #{branch}"]

  deploy do
    invoke :'git:clone'
    invoke :'deploy:link_shared_paths'
    invoke :'bundle:install'
    invoke :'deploy:cleanup'

    to :launch do
      invoke :'rails:db_create'
    end
  end
end

4.3 配置 config/deploy/production.rb

将domain, deploy_to, repository, branch, user替换成你自己的信息。

set :domain, 'your.domain.com'
set :deploy_to, '/home/newuser/xxx'
set :repository,  'git@github.com:xxx/xxx.git'
set :branch, 'master'
set :user, 'newuser'
set :puma_config, ->{ "#{deploy_to}/#{current_path}/config/puma/production.rb" }

这些配置信息更新好之后,提交到github

4.4 首次发布

$ mina setup
$ mina first_deploy

4.5 后续发布

$ mina deploy

4.6 本地查看生产环境日志

$ mina log

4.7 本地登录生产环境数据库控制台

$ mina console

4.8 本地登录服务器

$ mina ssh

5. 参考文档

Ubuntu 安装 Rails 环境: https://gorails.com/setup/ubuntu/16.04

Mina 配置: https://github.com/80percent/rails-template


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